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OVERVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC AND EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AT THE DEPARTMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS AND ENGINEERING THERMAL PHYSICS

І. DEPARTMENTS OF THE HEAT AND POWER ENGINEERING FACULTY:

- Department of Nuclear Power Plants and Engineering Thermal Physics;

- Department of Heat Power Installations of Heat and Nuclear Power Plants;

- Department of Theoretical and Industrial Heat Power Engineering;

- Department of Automation of Power Processes and Systems Designing;

- Department of Automation of Heat Power Processes.

Detailed information about these departments could be found at the internet page of the Heat and Power Engineering Faculty of NTUU ''KPI": http://tef.kpi.ua/.

Short information about the Department of Nuclear Power Plants and Engineering Thermal Physics (NPP & ETP).

1. The directions of education at the NPP & ETP Department:

- Nuclear Energy,

- Boilers and Reactors,

- Thermophysics.

2. The directions of education and scientific work in specialty "Nuclear Energy": control of nuclear installations; mounting and dismounting of nuclear installations, maintenance, repair and adjustment of nuclear installations; modeling of neutron-physical and thermohydraulic processes; theoretical investigation of thermophysical processes under supercritical pressure of coolant; reliability and safety of nuclear installations; risk management.

3. The directions of education and scientific work in specialty "Boilers and Reactors": calculations and designing; operation, mounting, adjustment and maintenance of heat and mechanical equipment of NPPs and HPPs; use of secondary energy resources; environmental protection.

4. The directions of education and scientific work in specialty "Thermophysics": numerical modeling of thermal and hydrodynamic processes; experimental studies of thermal and hydrodynamic processes; development of efficient heat exchange equipment; development and research of alternative energy sources and energy efficiency research; optimization of operational modes of equipment.

5. Today Staff of NPP & ETP Department consists of:

- professors – 8,

- associated professors – 17,

- senior teachers – 3,

- professor`s assistants – 2,

- scientists – 41.

6. There are 482 students at the NPP & ETP Department today. 13000 mechanical engineers were trained at the NPP & ETP Department from the moment of department creation.

7. Short history of the NPP & ETP Department:

- 1903 year – creation of steam boilers department;

- 1957 year – creation of laboratory for heat exchange and hydrodynamic investigation under supercritical parameters of coolant;

- since 1964 year – training of engineers in thermophysics;

- since 1996 year – training of specialists in nuclear energy.

ІІ. HEAD OF THE NPP & ETP DEPARTMENT

Dean of the Heat and Power Engineering Faculty and the Head of NPP & ETP Department of NTUU "KPI" - Pysmennyy Yevgen (Pis`mennyi E.N.), Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor. He is the author of numerous publications in the field of heat exchange in power plants.

III. THE LIST OF EDUCATIONAL DISCIPLINES IN THE DIRECTION OF EDUCATION "NUCLEAR ENERGY" is given in the Appendix 1.

ІV. SHORT DESCRIPTION OF EDUCATIONAL DISCIPLINES

The list of disciplines, the volume of training materials, credits for lectures, seminars and self-studying are set based on the requirements for professional knowledge, which are established by the State Standard of Ukraine "Handbook on the qualification characteristics of specialist`s professions" for the energy industry. For example, according to the normative part of the Standard in the part of professional and practical training for the educational degree of "Bachelor", the following educational disciplines are included: "Introduction to the Specialty", "Nuclear Power Reactors", "Theory of Nuclear Reactors".

Later, in the next cycle of training, students are study disciplines such as: "Atomic and Quantum Physics", "Nuclear and Neutron Physics", "Nuclear and Heat Power Plants", "Operation of Nuclear Installations", "Heat and Mechanical Equipment of NPP", "Pumps", "Materials for NPP", "Non-stationary Processes in Nuclear Installations", etc.

In subsequent cycles of the training next educational disciplines are studied: "Emergency Processes in Nuclear Power Installations", "Probabilistic Safety Analysis at NPP", "Safety Culture", "Dosimetry" and other specialized disciplines.

The students participate in scientific work at the Laboratory of Heat Exchange and Diagnosis of Thermal-and-Physical Processes. The Laboratory was founded at the Heat and Power Engineering Faculty in 1957. The experimental installation for heat exchange investigation under supercritical parameters of coolant was created at the Laboratory and equipped with power supply facilities that provide up to 1 MW for heating test sections.

During the last four decades a series of the works concerning heat transfer and hydraulics of water, in particular, in 7-rod simulators of fuel bundles at under- and supercritical (up to 27.5 MPa) pressures, as well as in a gaseous state has been performed. As a result, it was found that cooling of the vertical rods by supercritical water could take place both at normal and deteriorated heat transfer with a stable temperature profile along the heated length.

The experience accumulated for many years of the studies concerning heat transfer in the fuel assemblies cooled by water under supercritical pressure has been assessed as enough to invite the Laboratory to participate in the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Heat Transfer Behaviour and Thermohydraulics Codes Testing for Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors" with Research Project entitled "Heat Transfer to Supercritical Water and Distribution of Local Thermal and Hydraulic Parameters of Single-Phase Flow in Vertical 7-Rod Bundle Simulators".

Specialists of the department are carried out theoretical research and development of concepts of highly effective systems for passive heat transfer and thermal protection of evaporation-condensation type for objects of nuclear power technology. At this direction, in 2007, the book was published by authors Gershuni A., Nishchik A., Pis`mennyi E. "Evaporation-condensation type heat transfer systems for nuclear power installations". The team of authors of this book are the developers of a number of patented technical solutions.

To the teaching of the basic disciplines first of all highly educated professionals are involved. In the first place, we should remember Professor Shyrokov S. He has worked at head positions of the nuclear industry from the beginning of its development, including the position of Chief Engineer of Beloyarska NPP. Since 1988 he works as the professor at the department. He lectures on the three courses: "The Theory of Nuclear Reactors", "Non-stationary Processes in Nuclear Reactors" and "Design of Nuclear Reactors". He wrote a books, "Physics of Nuclear Reactors" - 1993, "Nuclear Power Reactors" - 1997, "Non-stationary Processes in Nuclear Reactors" - 2002, and other. It is important to note that the content of these courses is fully correlated with the developed in 2011 by the working group of IAEA multimedia tutorial on the physics of nuclear reactors «Multimedia on Nuclear Reactor Physics». In the abstract to the third book, "Non-stationary Processes in Nuclear Reactors," published in 2002, he wrote: "The study of transient processes and their effects on safety of nuclear reactors are presented. The role of delayed neutrons on the kinetics of the reactor is shown. The work of Control and Protection System of the reactor, influence of the effect of power variation, temperature variation on reactivity and other effects of reactivity, slagging and poisoning of the reactor and its impact on the physical characteristics of the reactor are described. The analysis of transient processes during the accident at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is performed".

Educational courses "Dosimetry" and "Construction, Decommissioning and Decontamination of Nuclear Power Plants" are lectured by Professor Nosovsky A., who came to teach at the Department of NPP & ETP after working as the Chief Engineer of Chernobyl NPP in the late 90's. He wrote the series of monographs "Safety of Nuclear Power Plants". As for today, we can mention: "Introduction to the Safety of Nuclear Technology" - 360 p., 2006, "Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Installations" - 288 p., 2005, "Decontamination" - 304 p., 2009, and other - in general there are 8 books that are used in the educational process.

Educational disciplines on NPP safety were divided into separate educational courses due to international cooperation. Associate Professor Begun V., a former shift supervisor at NPP, who took part in Chernobyl accident consequences elimination in 1986, in 1995 as a specialist of State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Ukraine has developed a curriculum and in the 1996 provided at the Department of NPP & ETP the educational course "Probabilistic Safety Analysis". In 2000, Begun V. with other scientists of the NPP & ETP Department published a textbook, which, together with the transferred from the INEL Laboratory computer code IRRAS, allowed to organize a fully fledged training. By today more than 1000 specialists, which working in different fields of nuclear industry, were trained, acquiring this valuable knowledge - Safety Analysis, at our University. After all, even the largest nuclear power accidents such as Three Mile Island accident at 1979, Chernobyl accident at 1986, Fukushima accident at 2011 could have been prevented under condition of timely in-depth safety analysis as required by the modern techniques of PSA. In the 2009 academic year, Associate Professor Begun V. and Professor Shyrokov S. developed and introduced a new training course in safety for students - "Safety Culture at Nuclear Installations of Ukraine". Education in safety culture in higher education and at the NPPs is a part of a modern process of safety maintenance recommended by the IAEA. Principles of safety culture are the basis of modern concept of nuclear power plant safety.

Other educational disciplines, as a rule, also are lectured by specialists from nuclear industry, from research centers, regulatory body and the operating organization. It should be noted that co-operation with the operating organization - NNEGC "Energoatom" brings tangible benefits to the educational process. Many graduates are working at NNEGC "Energoatom". All the students have practical training at nuclear industry of Ukraine, including nuclear power plants, where they familiarized with the real problems of the nuclear industry. Often, during the practical training student determines the future workplace. Operating organization helps in organization of annual Student`s project competitions "Youth - to Energy Industry of Ukraine"; funds the "International Summer School on Nuclear Energy" and other seminars and competitions, which would incorporate young students to science and cognitive activity. Undoubted success and proof of this is the participation of the 8 student`s works of our University in the prestigious international conference on nuclear safety ICONE-2012 in the USA (Anaheim), the internet page of the conference - (http://www.asmeconferences.org/ICONE20POWER2012/index.cfm).

Experts from our Department think that only through the joint efforts of all countries with nuclear power the higher level of nuclear knowledge and, consequently, the higher level of nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear power plants to the public and the environment could be achieved. Indeed, under the figurative expression of Professor B.R. Sehgal: "Nuclear power safety has no boundaries". The last accidents at Ukrainian NPPs we consider as the collective mistakes - the result of unreadiness to work with dangerous technologies, including errors of education.

We think that in the field of education Ukraine and the U.S. have following common interests:

• Support for education reform;

• Development of international cooperation in knowledge-intensive industries;

• Development of international cooperation in the nuclear industry;

• Increase in the number of publications in the field of nuclear energy;

• Improvement of education in the universities, the introduction of courses:

- in structure of energy and its forms;

- in safety and operating;

- in safety culture

- in psychology of safety.

The University is establishing cooperation in the field of nuclear knowledge with Russia, Japan. These mentioned principles of safety: the methods of detailed analysis of safety and risk, safety culture, emergency planning - should be studied together with nuclear technology by all specialists involved in the nuclear fuel cycle from the beginning of educational process. High professionalism, moral and ethical standards and social responsibility of trained specialists - these dominants should be the norm of behavior and activity. New requirements for professional qualification of specialists, who work with modern technology, should be a routine part of their activities. Higher education institutions in the energy industry profile should coordinate their curricula to modern international requirements on safety, should consider the accumulated experience, thoroughly study the principles of safety. Education in safety, nurturing of safety culture, the study of psychology of safety - should be the guarantee of the safety of complex nuclear technology. The level of education should correspond to the high level of technology, the education of specialists in this field must be continuous and consistent with international standards.

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